Selasa, 27 September 2011

Honda Civic

Honda Civic Type R

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Honda Civic Type R
2007 Honda Civic Type R for the Japanese Market
Manufacturer Honda
Production 1997–2010
Class sport compact
Body style 3-door hatchback, 4-door sedan
Layout FF layout
Related Honda Civic Si
The Honda Civic Type R is the highest performance version of the Honda Civic made by Honda Motor Company of Japan. It features a lightened and stiffened body, specially tuned engine and upgraded brakes and chassis. Red is also used in the interior to give it a special sporting distinction and to separate it from other Honda models. In Japan, a one-make series of Honda Type R cars where privateers can purchase an off-road Type R and compete in a series championship is a stepping stone for many aspiring racing drivers.



[edit] 1st generation (EK9 chassis)

First generation (EK9)
EK9 small 1.jpg
Production 1996-2000
Body style
3-door hatchback
Layout FF layout
Engine 1.6 L 185HP B16B I4
Transmission 5-speed manual
The first Civic to receive the 'Type R' name was based on the 6th generation 'EK' Civic. The contributing base model was the JDM Civic 3 door hatchback called SiR, code named EK4. Like its big brother the Integra Type R DC2, the Civic SiR's transformation into a Type R was achieved by working on the base model and improving it to Honda's idea of a car capable of high performance on the circuit.
The first Civic to receive the Type R badge was introduced in 1998 as the EK9. The EK9 shared many characteristics with the Integra Type R DC2 such as omission of sound deadening and other weight-reduction measures, a hand-ported B16B engine, front helical limited-slip differential and close ratio gearbox etc.. The B16B engine boasted one of the highest power output per litre of all time for an NA engine with 185 PS (136 kW; 182 hp) from a 1.6L. For the first time, a strategically seam welded monocoque chassis was used to improve chassis rigidity. The interior featured red Recaro seats,red Recaro door cards and red Recaro floor mat, a titanium shift knob and a Momo steering wheel. In 1999 the Type Rx was introduced featuring a CD player, body colored retractable electric door mirrors, power windows, auto air conditioning, key-less entry unlock system, aluminum sports pedals, and a carbon type center panel. The SiR badge from the previous 2 generations was ceded to the EK4 Civic as a mainstream sedan and hatchback which was sold in huge numbers across the globe due to its relatively low cost, practicality and everyday usable street performance/drivability.

[edit] 2nd generation (EP3 chassis)

Second generation (EP3)
2006 Civic Type R
Production 2001-2005
Body style
3-door hatchback
Layout FF layout
Engine 2.0 L K20A I4
Transmission 6-speed manual
In 2001 Honda introduced the next generation of the Civic Type R (EP3) as a unique 3 door hatchback to the UK market, which was manufactured in Swindon, England. This EDM (European Domestic Market) Civic Type R featured a 200 PS (150 kW; 200 hp) 2.0L i-VTEC engine (K20A2) and the regular Type R treatment of seam welding, close ratio 6-speed transmission and uprated brakes, but did not include some of the other higher-end features, such as the helical LSD and red Recaro race-seats, that were standard in the previous generation EK9. However, Honda of Japan marketed a JDM (Japanese domestic market) version of the EP3 (which was exclusively manufactured in Swindon,UK and was shipped to Japan), which retained the highly renowned helical LSD similar to that of the EK9 and red Recaro race-seats. Other differences included a more track-oriented chassis/undercarriage settings as compared to the EDM, as well as a 215 PS (158 kW; 212 hp) i-VTEC engine (K20A) had a fully balanced crankshaft assembly with different intake manifold, exhaust manifold, higher-lift camshafts, higher-compression pistons, chrome-moly flywheel and ECU programming. All of the Japan-spec K20A Type-R powertain were built in Japan and were shipped to the Swindon to be install in the Japan-spec Type-R EP3. The JDM EP3 was also available in the traditional Type R championship white while the EDM was not. The EDM has more relaxed gear ratios and some high rpm torque traded for low rpm torque compared to the JDM .
The EDM EP3 Civic Type R was much acclaimed by motoring journalists across the UK, winning 'Hot Hatch of the Year' awards more than once from Top Gear, Fifth Gear and What Car?. The Civic Type R became a popular alternative for mainstream drivers clocking huge sales numbers. The 2001 release of this CTR (Civic Type R), as it is commonly referred to, also indicated Honda's return to Formula One after almost 10 years as an engine supplier to the Jordan and BAR teams - this eventually led to the full-fledged comeback as a dedicated F1 works team in 2005 with Honda gaining full ownership of British American Racing.
2004 saw this successful CTR updated with many improvements - revised EPS with quicker steering, revised suspension settings, projector headlamps (JDM came equipped with halogens only while the EDM came with an option for HIDs with leveling motors), lighter clutch and flywheel assembly etc.; based on Honda literature, this facelifted (FL) model was targeted at addressing customers' and critics' feedback such as understeer on the limit (due to the front Macpherson strut setup), numb steering response and lack of low end torque.
Performance (all figures are manufacturer claims)
0-60 mph in 6.4/6.4 seconds (JDM/EDM pre-FL), 6.2/6.4 secs (JDM/EDM FL) 0-100 mph in 15.1/16 secs (JDM/EDM FL) Top speed 112 mph (180 km/h) and 146 mph (235 km/h) (JDM/EDM both)

[edit] 30th Anniversary Special Edition

In 2003 Honda decided to celebrate 30 years of producing the Civic by offering a special edition 30th Anniversary Type-R for the EDM. The special edition features special red sports seats from world renowned seat maker Recaro, air conditioning, leather MOMO steering wheel, red carpets and door linings and privacy glass on the rear windows. 30th Anniversary models were available in Nighthawk Black, Satin Silver and Milano Red. Only 300 of these models were produced, 100 in each of the 3 colours.

[edit] Premier Special Edition

In 2005 Honda introduced the Premier edition which had Recaro Trendline seats (similar to those found in the Anniversary Edition, only in red and black rather than all red), a darker shade of fabric on the rear seat centre sections, a Momo Steering Wheel, Red Carpet, "Type R" embossed into the front brake calipers and privacy glass on the rear windows. These were available in Milano Red, Nighthawk Black, Cosmic Grey and Satin Silver.

[edit] C Package

In 2004 Honda introduced the "C Package" option (¥330,000 JPY) to Japan's Civic Type R lineup which included an additional color, Satin Silver Metallic, HID lighting, rear privacy glass, automatic air conditioner and outside air temperature sensor.[1]

[edit] 3rd generation (FD2 & FN2 chassis)

3rd generation (FN2/FD2)
FD2 Honda Civic Type R
Production 2007-2010
Body style 4-door sedan (FD2)
3-door hatchback (FN2)
Layout FF layout
Engine 2.0 L K20A I4 (FD2)
2.0 L K20Z4 I4 (FN2)
Transmission 6-speed manual
The current generation Civic Type R is offered in two distinct forms: one for the European and Australian markets and one for the Japanese domestic market, matching the availability of their regular 8th gen. counterpart.

FD2 chassis (Asian version)

The Japanese market Civic Type R (FD2) went on sale on March 30, 2007. For the first time, the JDM Civic was sold as a four door sports sedan rather than a three door hot hatch. Using the Japanese market four-door sedan as a base model meaning the new Type R is now bigger, wider and heavier. More importantly, the wheelbase has grown from 2,570 mm (101.2 in) to 2,700 mm (106.3 in), giving the FD2R a more stable stance in high speed cornering. The new Japanese model's engine output is higher than the European version's, with 225 PS (165 kW; 222 hp) being developed at 8,400 rpm and 215 N·m (159 lb·ft) of torque peaking at 6,100 rpm (versus 201 PS (148 kW; 198 hp) at 7,800 rpm and 193 N·m (142 lb·ft) at 5,600 rpm for the European model). The base engine itself is borrowed from the Accord Euro R CL7 with its longer intake manifold. Changes have been made to the block in terms of mounting points for ancillary parts making it different from previous K20A. New technology such as Drive By Wire throttle and porting of the intake valve ports using techniques from the NSX are implemented. Honda says mid-range is increased by 10 PS (7 kW; 10 hp). Drive is fed through a close ratio six speed gearbox, and a helical limited slip differential is fitted as standard. The front brake discs increased from the DC5R's 300 mm (11.8 in) to 320 mm (12.6 in) are fitted with four pot Brembo calipers. Tire size are now 225/40 R18 Bridgestone Potenza RE070.
Honda claims the body is 50% more rigid than the previous Japan-only DC5 Integra Type R, and the new model features an independent rear suspension rather than the torsion beam configuration used on the latest European Civic Type-R.[2] To save weight, aluminum is used extensively and bonded with adhesive instead of welded. Though the body is larger and more rigid than JDM Integra Type R, it is only 1.8 kg (4 lb) heavier.[3]
Exterior wise, the front bumper is different from the standard Civic designed aerodynamically. The rear bumper features a diffuser built into the bumper and completing the aero package with a huge rear wing. Inside, the trademark black and red bucket seats are no longer made by Recaro as with previous versions, but designed in house by Honda. Also gone is the Momo made steering wheel, instead replaced by a Honda made version. The familiar red-on-black colour scheme or black-on-black scheme is offered on the Championship White version and Super Platinum Metallic Silver versions while a black-on-black scheme with red stitching is for the Vivid Blue Pearl only.
In October 2008, the Civic received a minor face lift. The standard and hybrid versions now had the same front bumper as the Type R while a redesigned tail lamps changes the round insets into octagons. The Type R also received new available colours, with Premium White Pearl, Premium Deep Violet Pearl and Crystal Black Pearl being added and Vivid Blue Pearl being dropped.
In back to back tests the FD2 Type-R was on average 1 second quicker than the (DC5) Integra Type-R at the Tsukuba Circuit and four seconds faster at the longerSuzuka.[3]
In a back to back test on the United Kingdom TV program 5th Gear, the FD2 Type-R was three seconds quicker than the equivalent FN2 UK version around Castle Combe Circuit in the wet.[4]
The FD2 Civic Type R was officially launched in the Malaysian market on August the 2nd 2007. It was the first time that any Type R JDM model was launched outside of Japan.
The FD2 Civic Type R ceased production in August 2010 because of failing to meet upcoming emission requirement. Following the previous success of introducing the FN2 Civic Type R from Europe in 2009, another batch of FN2 Type R with minor update is available in fall 2010.[5] The FN2 Type R has 197 hp (147 kW) vs the 225 hp (168 kW) output in the FD2 Type R.[6] The JDM Civic Type R will be replaced by a new model when the all-new JDM Civic arrives in late 2012.

Civic Mugen RR (Honda ABA-FD2)

In addition to Civic Type R, 300 Honda Civic Mugen RR cars in red only had also been produced for Japanese market, which reduced weight to 1,255 kg (2,770 lb) using CFRP bumpers and aluminum for the bonnet. The engine is rated 240 PS (180 kW; 240 hp) at 8,000 rpm and 218 N·m (161 lb·ft) torque at 7,000 rpm achieved through Mugen parts such as camshafts, exhaust system and ECU. Other exclusive items that make this a collectors item are Recaro SP-X seats and other Mugen items inside while special Mugen wheels equipped as standard. This version cost 4,777,500 yen (4,550,000+tax) ($38,750 USD) and went on sale on Sept 13 2007.[7]
Mugen also debuted Civic Type-RR Experimental Spec concept car in Tokyo Auto Salon, which features 2157 cc K20A engine rated 260 PS (190 kW; 260 hp) and 237 N·m (175 lb·ft) of torque. Weight is further reduced using aluminum hood (4.6 kg (10 lb)), as well as the new titanium exhaust system (7.6 kg (17 lb)). Interior was replaced with more carbon fiber parts. The car also features Intelligent-Tire Condition Monitoring System (i-TCMS) and Recaro seats.[8]
The concept was later called Honda Civic Mugen RR Advanced Concept during 2009 Tokyo Auto Salon, which has the weight of 1,095 kg (2,414 lb).[9] Brake disc was increased to 340 mm (13.4 in) diameter (320 mm (12.6 in) in Type R/RR).[10]

Civic Mugen RC (2008-)

A race version called Honda Civic Mugen RC has also been produced, designed for the 2008 Honda Exciting Cup Civic One-Make Race-Civic Series.[11] The engine is the stock K20A engine from FD2 Honda Civic Type R. It comes with following models:
  • BASIC: 6,247,500 yen (5,950,000+tax).
  • STANDARD: 7,192,500 yen (6,850,000+tax). It adds racing wheel package (Mugen RC 18 inch wheel with Yokohama tire), brake package (front+rear brake pads), seat and steering (Recaro bucket seat, seat rail, steering wheel with box, TAKATA harness), carbon inner part option A (carbon fibre right floor cover panel, footrest, door lining) over BASIC.
  • COMPLETE: 7,822,500 yen (7,450,000+tax). It adds carbon inner part option B (carbon fibre console box, left floor cover panel, centre pillar cover), engine package (engine rebalancing and calibration)[12]
Civic Mugen RC was built in Mugen's M-TEC factory.[13]

FN2 chassis (European version)

FN2 Honda Civic Type R
The European market Civic Type R is offered only as a three door hatch back and uses a different chassis and internal layout (notably tank placement below the driver's seat), which will serve as base for the next European Jazz. The rear suspension formerly a double wishbone set up has been changed to a less complex torsion beam axle. The drive train is largely the same as the out going model offering 201 PS (148 kW; 198 hp) at 7,500 rpm and 193 N·m (142 lb·ft) of torque at 5,600 rpm. It runs on 225/40 R18 Y88 Bridgestone Potenza RE050A tyres, while optional 19" Rage alloys run on Yokohama Advan Sport 225/35 ZR19 88Y tyres. The car has a curb weight of 1,267 kg (2,790 lb).


Type R GT includes, dual zone climate control (Left:right independent), rain sensing windscreen wipers, refrigerated glove box, automatic headlights with dusk sensor, front fog lights, power folding door mirrors, cruise control, front and rear curtain airbags. It is finished in the same three colours as the standard FN2, and a new addition the range, deep sapphire blue pearl. As often, names and trims vary even within domain markets down to local ones, and a Heritage version replaces GT version in some of them, adding Xenon/HID lights to the mix. The topping Heritage Navi version adds Bluetooth telephone system and voice recognition DVD satellite navigation. A more radical version dubbed Race differs from the Heritage by removing components (incl. HID, AC, fog lights, audio system, sound proofing, some airbags) to reduce weight as much as 40 kg (88 lb). Finally, together with the 2009 revision to all 8th gen. EDM Civic variants (adding for example a USB iPod-compatible plug to the audio system), a special edition called Championship White comes in the eponyme Honda color, with the same alloys only with matching white color, 18" wheels (19" white Rage optional). This edition adds an exclusive limited slip differential to a Heritage trim level, which Honda touted at Paris Motor Show as helping the car shave off more than a second to its undisclosed Tsukuba lap time. In addition models made from the 1st March 2010 have LSD fitted as standard.
Production of the current generation of the Civic Type R hot hatch for the European market finished in October 2010. The car’s high-revving 2.0-litre VTEC engine is to blame, as it does not meet forthcoming Euro V emissions regulations. Instead of reengineering the unit the meet the stricter standards, which come into force for all new cars in January 2011, the UK market Type R will be axed and replaced by a new model when the all-new Civic arrives in late 2011. Over 12,000 Civic Type Rs have been sold in the UK since January 2007, and although the last UK cars will be sold by December, Honda’s Swindon plant will continue to build the car for the Australian, Middle Eastern, and South African markets. It is also exported to Japan and marketed as Civic Type-R EURO in limited edition in fall 2010, following a successful run in November 2009.[14] According to Autocar, Euro V emission requirement also caused the demise of Alfa Brera with 3.2 V6, Ford Focus ST, Mazda RX-8 and the VW Group’s 5.0 V10 turbodiesel.[15]


Top Gear Magazine awarded the European Civic Type R its 'Hot Hatch of 2007',[16] praising the car's controls and comparing it favourably as a driver's car to its rivals, the Stig qualifying it as 'an utter gem'.[17] However the television show Top Gear later criticized the new FN2 Chassis version, due to the different suspension and added weight. Jeremy Clarkson said it "just doesn't feel that quick" and that "all the poise and control you used to get from the old car is gone". The car has met with criticism from Evo Magazine, as well, who complained that it falls short dynamically when compared to rivals like the European market Ford Focus ST, Opel Astra OPC/Vauxhall Astra VXR and the Volkswagen Golf GTi particularly in the areas of steering and chassis balance,[18] although the magazine has praised the improved steering feel and more evenly distributed torque of the FN2 compared to the previous EDM EP3.[19]


In Singapore, the FN2 Civic Type-R Hatchback (European version) is sold by the authorized dealer, while the FD2 Civic Type-R Sedan (Japanese version) is sold by parallel imports.


The FD2 sedan was initially available in Japan, but as of November 2009, Honda imported the FN2 hatchback (which is also sold in Europe) in limited numbers (about 2010 units), giving it the name Civic Type-R EURO.

Mazda RX-7

Mazda RX-7
Kamis, 19 Maret 2009 | 07:04 WIB


Gagak Hitam diharap bangun dari garasi untuk memenuhi tantangan Honda S2000 — Christian Purnama, pemilik Honda S2000, bila jumpa Mazda RX-7 hitam ini harus waspada. Jika sampai Mr X, sang pemilik yang enggan disebut namanya, mengeluarkan "Gagak Hitam" yang banyak tidur di garasi untuk memenuhi tantangan Chris, maka bisa seru. Jangan-jangan, justru Si Kuning yang diasapi.

Sebab, dari segi tenaga, Mazda bikinan 2002 ini menyimpan tenaga 456 dk. Kelebihan sampai 180 dk dari standarnya. Sementara itu, si penantang hanya 320 dk. Lonjakan itu tercipta setelah dapur pacu standar Rotary 13B-REW (2 x 650 = 1.300 cc) dijejali komponen performa bikinan HKS.

Suara khas turbo
Bagian dari mesin yang dimodifikasi di antaranya frontmount intercooler, diaplikasi dari HKS. Selain turut meningkatkan tenaga yang dihasilkan dari rumah keong (turbo) berspek sequential twin turbocharger, juga efisiensi didapat. Kemudian, untuk mencegah pembuangan gas buang dari turbo saat pedal gas diangkat, ditambahkan blow off valve (BOV).

Selain untuk mencegah hal tadi, sistem pemasangannya yang bypass valve aftermarket tak lain menjaga keawetan turbo. Asyiknya, tekanan udara yang dimuntahkan BOV mengeluarkan suara desahan khas turbo. Buuueeshhh...buuueeshh.

Banyak lagi komponen mesin yang diganti dengan HKS, seperti air intake Super Mega Flow beserta sistem exhaust muffler Hi Power. Kemudian, intake udara Super Mega Flow yang punya diameter permukaan filter udara 30 persen lebih besar dari standar didandani dengan elemen filter warna limited sunset orange yang punya sistem 2 layer wet.

Sementara itu, HKS Hi Power yang didesain untuk mesin turbo menawarkan spek pipa stainless SUS304 yang punya desain diameter pipa 75 mm dan diameter lubang muffler 120 mm. Fungsinya untuk mengoptimalkan kelancaran saluran pembuangan agar respons tekanan boost menengah yang lebih baik.

Belum puas dengan penambahan komponen performa, Mr X memasang komputer A'PEXi Power FC yang punya khas sistem stand alone. Kelebihannya bisa mendongkrak tenaga mesin yang sudah dijejali produk HKS mencapai 456 dk.

Brembo competition
Walah, dengan tenaga sebesar itu, apa sedan coupe itu bisa berhenti? Mr X sadar betul kalau rem standar pasti tidak mumpuni. Makanya, bagian depan diganti dengan Brembo Competition yang kalipernya lebih besar, dan, untuk deselerasi, tentu lebih baik. Adapun rem belakang yang sudah disc brake hanya dimodifikasi dengan sistem cross drilled.

Untuk meredam goncangan dan meminimalkan body roll, sistem suspensi diganti dengan HKS Hiper Max yang desainnya monotube. Diklaim sang pembuat (HKS) jauh lebih bagus dari sistem twin tube konvensional. Konstruksinya terdiri dari silinder tunggal yang terbagi atas ruang untuk oli serta gas yang tak menyatu. Dengan demikian, desain piston jadi lebih besar.

Dengan ubahan di dua sektor itu, manuver di tikungan jadi lebih yakin setelah keempat roda dipakai velg 19 x (8,5 + 9,5) inci yang bercorak 3-piece bibir stelip. Velg yang dipilih SSR model Professor MSI yang konsepnya bergaya oldschool racing.
Mudah-mudahan, "Si Gagak Hitam" ini bisa ketemu sama Honda S2000 di jalan tol. Pengin tahu, siapa yang menang.

Chevrolet Camaro

Chevrolet Camaro

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Chevrolet Camaro
1968 Chevrolet Camaro
2010 Chevrolet Camaro
Manufacturer Chevrolet
Production 1966–2002
Model years 1967–2002
Class Pony car
Muscle car
Body style 2-door coupe
2-door convertible
Layout FR layout
Platform F-body (1967–2002)
Zeta platform (2010–present)
Related Pontiac Firebird
The Chevrolet Camaro is an automobile manufactured by General Motors under the Chevrolet brand, classified as a pony car[1][2] and some versions also as a muscle car.[3][4] It went on sale on September 29, 1966, for the 1967 model year and was designed as a competing model to the Ford Mustang. The car shared its platform and major components with the Pontiac Firebird, also introduced for 1967.
Four distinct generations of the Camaro were developed before production ended in 2002. The nameplate was revived again on a concept car that evolved into the fifth-generation Camaro; production started on March 16, 2009.[5]


[edit] Background

Before any official announcement, reports began running during April 1965 within the automotive press that Chevrolet was preparing a competitor to the Ford Mustang, code-named Panther.[6] On June 21, 1966, around 200 automotive journalists received a telegram from General Motors stating, "...Please save noon of June 28 for important SEPAW meeting. Hope you can be on hand to help scratch a cat. Details will follow...(signed) John L. Cutter – Chevrolet Public Relations – SEPAW Secretary." The following day, the same journalists received another General Motors telegram stating, "Society for the Eradication of Panthers from the Automotive World will hold first and last meeting on June 28...(signed) John L. Cutter – Chevrolet Public Relations SEPAW Secretary." These telegrams puzzled the automotive journalists.
On June 28, 1966, General Motors held a live press conference in Detroit’s Statler-Hilton Hotel. It would be the first time in history that 14 cities were hooked up in real time for a press conference via telephone lines. Chevrolet General Manager Pete Estes started the news conference stating that all attendees of the conference were charter members of the Society for the Elimination of Panthers from the Automotive World and that this would be the first and last meeting of SEPAW. Estes then announced a new car line, project designation XP-836, with a name that Chevrolet chose in keeping with other car names beginning with the letter C such as the Corvair, Chevelle, Chevy II, and Corvette. He claimed the name, "suggests the comradeship of good friends as a personal car should be to its owner" and that "to us, the name means just what we think the car will do... Go!" The new Camaro name was then unveiled. Automotive press asked Chevrolet product managers, "What is a Camaro?" and were told it was "a small, vicious animal that eats Mustangs."[7]
The Camaro was first shown at a press preview in Detroit, Michigan, on September 12, 1966, and then later in Los Angeles, California, on September 19, 1966. The Camaro officially went on sale in dealerships on September 29, 1966, for the 1967 model year.

[edit] First generation: 1967–1969

First-generation Camaro debuted in September 1966, for the 1967 model year, up to 1969 on a new rear-wheel drive GM F-body platform and would be available as a 2-door, 2+2 seating, coupe or convertible with a choice of 250 cu in (4.1 L) inline-6 and 302 cu in (4.9 L), 307 cu in (5.0 L), 327 cu in (5.4 L), 350 cu in (5.7 L), or 396 cu in (6.5 L) V8 powerplants. Concerned with the runaway success of the Ford Mustang, Chevrolet executives realized that their compact sporty car, the Corvair, would not be able to generate the sales volume of the Mustang due to its rear-engine design, as well as declining sales, partly due to the bad publicity from Ralph Nader's book, Unsafe at Any Speed. Therefore, the Camaro was touted as having the same conventional rear-drive, front-engine configuration as Mustang and Chevy II Nova. In addition, the Camaro was designed to fit a variety of power plants in the engine bay. The first-generation Camaro would last until the 1969 model year and would eventually inspire the design of the new retro fifth-generation Camaro.

[edit] Second generation: 1970–1981

Introduced in February 1970, the second generation Camaro was produced through the 1981 model year, with cosmetic changes made in 1974 and 1978 model years. The car was heavily restyled and became somewhat larger and wider with the new styling. Still based on the F-body platform, the new Camaro was similar to its predecessor, with a unibody structure, front subframe, an A-arm front suspension and leaf springs to control the solid rear axle. Road & Track magazine picked the 1971 SS350 as one of the 10 best cars in the world in August 1971. RS, SS and Z28 performance packages gradually disappeared. The Z28 package was reintroduced in 1977, largely in response to the huge success of its corporate stablemate, the Pontiac Trans Am. 1980 and 1981 Z28s included an air induction hood scoop, with an intake door that opened under full throttle.

[edit] Third generation: 1982–1992

The third generation Camaro was produced from 1982 to 1992. These were the first Camaros to offer modern fuel injection, Turbo-Hydramatic 700R4 four-speed automatic transmissions, five speed manual transmissions, 16 inch wheels, a standard 4-cylinder engine,[8] and hatchback bodies. The cars were nearly 500 pounds (227 kg) lighter than the second generation model.
The IROC-Z which stands for International Race of Champions was introduced in 1985 and continued through 1990. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Regulations required a CHMSL (Center High Mounted Stop Lamp) starting with the 1986 model year. The new brake light was located on the exterior of the upper center area of the back hatch glass. In 1987, the L98 5.7 L V8 engine became an option on the IROC-Z, paired with an automatic transmission. The "20th Anniversary Commemorative Edition" was offered in 1987 and a "25th Anniversary Heritage Package" was available in 1992 which was with a 305 cu in (5.0 L) High Output engine. Beginning in 1988, the 1LE performance package was introduced, optional on street models and for showroom stock racing in the U.S. and Canada. The B4C or "police" package was made available beginning in 1991. This basically created a Z28 in more subtle RS styling.

[edit] Fourth generation: 1993–2002

The fourth-generation Camaro debuted in 1993 on an updated F-body platform. It retained the same characteristics since its introduction in 1967: a coupe body style with 2+2 seating (with an optional T-top roof) or convertible (introduced in 1994), rear-wheel drive, and a choice of V6 and V8 engines. The standard powerplant from 1993-1995 was a 3.4 liter V6. A more powerful 3.8 liter V6 was introduced as an option in 1995 and made standard in 1996. The LT1 V-8 engine, which was introduced in the Corvette in 1992, was standard in the Z28. Optional equipment included all-speed traction control and a new six-speed T-56 manual transmission; a four-speed automatic transmission was also available. Anti-lock brakes were standard equipment on all Camaros. The 1997 model year included a revised interior, and the 1998 models included exterior styling changes, and a switch to GM's aluminum block LS1 used in the Corvette C5. The Camaro remained in production through the 2002 model year, marking 35 years of continuous production. Production of the F-Body platform was stopped due to slowing sales, a deteriorating market for sports coupes, and plant overcapacity.[9][10]

[edit] Fifth generation: 2010–present

Based on the 2006 Camaro Concept[11] and 2007 Camaro Convertible Concept, production of the fifth-generation Camaro was approved on 10 August 2006. Oshawa Car Assembly produces the new Camaro [12] which went on sale in spring of 2009 as a 2010 model year vehicle.[13][14] The fifth-generation Camaro was engineered by General Motors Holden in Melbourne, Australia, and is based on the highly-successful GM Holden Zeta RWD platform.
Production of the coupe began on March 16, 2009, in LS, LT, and SS trim levels.[15][16] LS and LT models are powered by a 3.6 L (220 cu in) V6 producing 304 hp (227 kW) (or 312hp for the 2011 model) mated to either a 6-speed manual or a 6-speed automatic with manual shift. The SS is powered by the 6.2 L (376 cu in) LS3 V8 producing 426 hp (318 kW) and is paired with a 6-speed manual. The automatic SS gets the L99 V8 with 400 hp (300 kW). The RS appearance package is available on both the LT and SS and features 20-inch wheels with a darker gray tone, halo rings around xenon headlamps, a unique spoiler, and red RS or SS badges. For the 2012 model year, several changes have been made to the Camaro line. The "Jewel Red Tintocoat" color has been replaced by a color known as "Crystal Red Tintcoat" and the "Synergy Green" color option was removed. The V6 is updated to a 3.6L engine named "LFX" that has an output of 312 horsepower. The SS model has also received an upgrade to the suspension system, with an engine update in the makings. All Camaro models from 1LS to 2SS are now outfitted with standard RS spoiler, and Taillight details. Also, wheel-mounted volume and radio controls are standard, as well as Bluetooth connectivity controls. Some minor modifications, such as a revised steering wheel design and updated instrument panels keep the interior up to speed with the other updates. Chevrolet announced the new 2012 ZL1 Camaro, it will have a 6.2L LSA supercharged V8 and is estimated to produce 550+ horsepower. The LSA motor is the same used in the Cadillac CTS-V and makes it the fastest production Camaro ever produced. Some other features include 2-stage exhaust, addition of suede to seats, steering wheel and shift knob, and LT1-exclusive 20" aluminum wheels.
On April 1, 2010, the Camaro was named the World Car Design of the Year at the World Car of the Year Awards.[17]
In late January 2011, the production of (est.) 600 2011 Camaro Convertibles started. The first going to Rick Hendrick via Barret-Jackson Car Auction. Convertibles had the same options as the coupe (engines, RS, SS, etc.). The Camaro Convertible features an aluminum brace over the engine assembly, and under the transmission. Due to the 2011 Fukushima earthquake, certain pigment colors were not available to make certain colors for both the coupe and convertible.
On November 2011, the export version (excluding Japanese version) of Camaro will be introduced after two-year delay. The delay is due to several factors, including the unexpected high demand and strained production capacity. The export version has completely different taillamps with integrated reverse and amber turn signal lamps, larger external rear view mirrors with integrated side turn signal repeaters, "cleaner" rear bumper appearance (without reverse light inserts), and a few other changes as to comply with ECE regulations.[18]

[edit] Racing

Camaros racing in the 1976 Camaro Cup at Ring Knutstorp in Sweden
Vintage Trans-Am racing of today.
The Camaro was one of the prominent vehicles in the SCCA-sanctioned Trans-Am Series. Chevrolet worked with Roger Penske to operate their unofficially factory-backed Trans Am team, winning the title in 1968 and 1969 with Mark Donohue. Jim Hall's Chaparral team replaced Penske for the 1970 season. Warren Agor of Rochester, NY, was the series' leading Camaro privateer, his orange #13's o, 1993, 1994, and 1998.
There was also another SCCA Trans-Am Series Camaro that was not popular because of racing but because of its body modifications. This Camaro, proudly wearing the number 13, had been built and driven by Henry “Smokey” Yunick. Smokey Yunick was an innovative car builder, who worked to reduce the weight of his cars by acid-dipping body parts, and installing thinner safety glass.
The Penske/Donohue Camaros also had the front sheet metal dropped, all four fenders widened, windshield laid back, front sub-frame “Z’d” to lower the car, the floor pan moved up and even the drip-rails were moved closer to the body. This Camaro had always kept its stock look and had a 302 engine that was able to produce 482 horsepower. This Camaro had later on been bought by Vic Edelbrock. At this time he put it to use as a test car for new age Chevy small block performance part. One part that had come out of his testing was the Edelbrock Cross-Manifold. To this day the Smokey Yunick 1968 Camaro is owned by Vic Edelbrock Jr.
Camaro Cup race car
Bob Jane won both the 1971 and 1972 Australian Touring Car Championships at the wheel of a Camaro.[19]
The Camaro was the official car of and used in the International Race of Champions starting in 1975 and lasting for 12 years until 1989. It was the first American car of the series succeeding the Porsche Carrera RSR.
Today, Camaros are raced in many forms of auto racing throughout the world. They are a favorite in drag racing and can be currently found in several series from the National Hot Rod Association, International Hot Rod Association, and United States Hot Rod Association. Road racing Camaros can currently be found in the Sports Car Club of America's American Sedan series. They have also been the exclusive vehicle used in the Swedish Camaro Cup series since 1975.
The Camaro not only participated in racing, but was bestowed the honor of Indianapolis 500 Pace Car duties in 1967, 1969, 1982, 1993, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The Camaro also paced races at Daytona, Watkins Glen, Mosport in Canada and Charlotte Motor Speedway.
The Camaro was also a regular in the IMSA GT Series.
The fifth-generation Camaro is expected to take to the tracks in 2010 in the GT class of the Grand Am Road Racing Championship. Stevenson Motorsports has announced it is seeking to run a two-car team of Pratt & Miller built cars, based on the same spaceframe as its existing Pontiac GXP-R.[20] The team also competes with Camaros in the Grand Sports class of the Grand-Am's Continental Tire Challenge.[21]

[edit] Notable appearances

Bumblebee depicted as a 1976 and 5th-gen Camaro concept variant.
The Camaro has also made several notable appearances in film. One of the more popular movie Camaros was a black 1967 model driven by actor John Cusack in the 1985 film Better Off Dead.[22]
The vehicle mode of the fictional character Bumblebee in the 2007 film, Transformers, is first depicted as a 1976 Camaro[23] and later a fifth-generation concept variant. A modified fifth-generation Camaro reprises the role of Bumblebee in the sequels, Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen and Transformers: Dark of the Moon.
The Camaro is also the car driven by Detective Danny Williams in the 2010 remake of Hawaii Five-0 on CBS. The Camaro is just one of the many Chevrolet models seen in the show due to a product placement agreement. Other Chevrolets featured include a Silverado driven by Steve McGrarett, a Cruze driven by Kono, a Traverse driven by Chin Ho Kelly and a fleet of Impalas driven by the Honolulu Police Department.

Minggu, 25 September 2011

Lamborghini Reventon

Lamborghini Reventon Mobil Termahal di Dunia no5

Based on the Murciélago sports car, the Reventon is said was inspired by the F-22 Raptor is a fighter jet and a true super car by all standards. Lamborghini will only build 20 Reventons, with all spoken for. Eleven of the 20 US-bound cars.
Sign in to club owners Reventon will cost a cool one million euros, or about $ 1.6 million - significantly above the $ 300,000 Murcielago MSRP. In fact, anyone who wants a car had been asked to put down a deposit near that amount.
Hood made of glass laminate with open ventilation space offers a glimpse at the big 6.5-liter V12 engine. The Reventon provides 650 horsepower and 487 pounds-feet of torque.
The outside of the Reventon is formed by carbon fiber material, known as CFCs. CFCs are known for both light and strong. Exterior components attached to the steel and the body of CFCs with glue.
The Reventon is only available in one color, specially created for the Reventon model, and named it. Mid opaque green color / gray that does not have a traditional high-gloss, but maintain the depth by using a special metallic particles.

Exterior lighting on the Reventon is suitable for a super car with a powerful Bi-Xenon head lights, daytime running lights consisting of seven LEDs per side and nine diodes for the indicator and hazard lights. The back is decorated with Reventon special heatproof LEDs for the rear indicators, brake, and hazard lights are made to withstand heat dissipation from the V12 engine.
Created using Alcantara, carbon fiber, aluminum and leather, the interior is inspired by modern aircraft cockpits. Three features of the LCD display various useful readouts for the driver. Instruments are stored in the structure milled from a solid aluminum block, protected by a carbon fiber casing.
G-Force-Meter is also completely new: this display shows the dynamic drive forces, longitudinal acceleration during acceleration and braking, as well as transversal acceleration around bends. Strength is represented by the movement of the indicator graduated 3D grid depending on the direction and intensity of acceleration. Similar instruments can be found in aircraft. Formula One teams also use a similar device to analyze dynamic forces.

Pagani Zonda

Spesifikasi Cinque Pagani Zonda Roadster Mobil Termahal di Dunia no3

His name was not so familiar in the country. By contrast, in Europe, Pagani origin is well known in Italy. The most expensive model of the Pagani Zonda C12F was introduced to the public at Geneve Motor Show 2005.

Using the 7.3-liter engine, the V-12. Power generated reaches 602 PS, and to clubsport achieve 650PS. Claim Pagani: acceleration 0-96 km / h reached in 3.2 seconds with kcepatan top 374 km / hour.
All weight reduction measures adopted by Pagani to improve driving pleasure, performance and emission of the Zonda Cinque have found use in the Pagani Zonda Cinque Roadster as well. The Carbon-Titanium chassis has been redesigned for the compensation of a missing roof.

The Cinque experience is enhanced with the roof stored in the front bonnet, when the storm of air being fed to the 678hp Mercedes AMG V12 engine through the massive intake just inches over the passengers' ears, accompanies the exhaust note of the bespoke Pagani Zonda Cinque Inconel and Titanium exhaust system.

Whether you opt for a relaxed country drive in Tuscany's hills, visiting Florence and other centres of the Italian Renaissance, or a record hunt at the Nürburgring, this 1.3 milion Euro + taxes jewel will reward with every day driveability and ultimate performance thanks to the different drive modes of the sequential robostised gearbox and an adjustable suspension setup that feels at home as well at the racetrack as on bumpy roads.
Technical Specifications
* Mercedes Benz AMG engine
* Power: 678 hp
* Torque: 780 Nm
* Carbon-titanium monocoque
* ECU, Traction control, ABS by Bosch Engineering
* Inconel/titanium exhaust system coated with ceramic
* Suspensions in magnesium and titanium
* Cima sequential gearbox (6 speed), robotized by Automac enginnering
* APP monolitic wheels forged in aluminium and magnesium, front 9x19, rear 12,5x20
* Pirelli PZero tyres, front 255/35/19, rear 335/30/20
* Pagani leather/carbon fibre racing seats
* Brembo brakes in carbo-ceramic self ventilated with hydraulic servo brake, Size: front 380x34 mm, monolitic 6 piston caliper; rear 380x34 mm, monolitic 4 piston caliper
* Dry weight 1.210 kg
* Weight distribution in driving condition: 47% front, 53% rear
* Acceleration
o 0-100 km/h: 3.4 s
o 0-200 km/h: 9.6 s
* Braking
o 100-0 km/h: 2.1 s
o 200-0 km/h: 4.3 s
* Maximum side acceleration: 1,45 G (with road tyres)
* Downforce at 300 kp/h: 750 kg